Friday, January 30, 2015

Book Review – “Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other”

Sherry Turkle is the Professor of the Social Studies of Science and Technology at MIT, and a licensed clinical psychologist. Her latest book, which is a bit dated now, is entitled Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2011). 

This fine work is the third in a trilogy, and it explores how the technology we have created to help us is in fact shaping us. More specifically, Turkle is concerned that we are turning to “machines” to address human vulnerabilities that machines can never address. Unable to meet our needs with what is real, we are looking to what seems to be real, but what is this bond with machines doing to us? What will be the long-term effects on persons and society?

Turkle is not anti-tech, after all, she’s taught at MIT for over thirty years. But I read her book as a cautionary tale, warning us not to put too much hope in tech. As she comments late in the book, “We are not in trouble because of invention but because we think it will solve everything” (284). Indeed, we’re looking to tech as if it were God.

Part One of the book, then, explores the development of robotics over the last forty years, mainly because this industry has taken a decided turn toward “affective robots” that mimic human behavior, speech, and emotions. They explicitly offer the illusion of companionship. This movement is perhaps the most graphic display of what is more broadly true of the relationship between human beings and our machines—we are forming attachments to them that expose our unique vulnerabilities and portend novel disappointments and unique depressions. That is, since the machines we have created offer only the illusion of reality, we will eventually discover that they cannot deliver the hope we hoped they would.

Part Two of the book explores “the network” to which we are constantly connected via our computers, pads, and smartphones. In this section, Turkle gives special attention to teens and young adults, as her primary concern is what will come of our relationship to technology. She’s very concerned by what she sees. Young people are ceaselessly tethered to the Net, and yet they are ever more distant from one another, less able to form deep bonds, less able to engage in meaningful and extended conversation, less sure of their own worth, less certain of their own identities. Young people are caught up in a world where superficial connection has replaced intimacy, and this, Turkle warns, will have a detrimental impact on our children and our emerging society. Many youth are discontent with what is, but most see no way of escape.

The Conclusion and Epilogue draw these two streams together but by then the reader understands that the story of robotics and the story of networking are one in the same story. Again, affective robots are simply the most graphic expression of what is more broadly true—we are forming bonds with our machines and expecting of them what they can never deliver to us.

Turkle’s analysis of the state and direction of technology, psychology, and sociology is penetratingly accurate, however, she offers little in the way of solutions. She does call her readers to careful self- and societal-reflection, but she does not press into the nature of the unmet needs we are attempting to address with our machines. From a biblical point of view, it is obvious that we have made idols of our technology. We are looking to them as God-substitutes and exchanging the reality of communion with God (and others) for the appearance of communion. We are content with “less than” because we have convinced ourselves that it’s “more than.”

But our souls will never be satisfied until they are satisfied in God and we learn from him how to form deep bonds with one another. For this we were created, and therefore the path to life is to look to Jesus and obey the great commandment: “‘And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’ The second is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no other commandment greater than these.” (Mark 12:30-31).

As Jesus grants the grace to do this, our machines will take their proper place and we will use them for the glory of God rather than the satisfaction of our souls. 

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Delighting in the Words and Ways of God

In Psalm 119:14-16 David writes, “In the way of your testimonies I delight as much as in all riches. I will meditate on your precepts and fix my eyes on your ways. I will delight in your statutes; I will not forget your word.”

When David says that he delights in the testimonies of God, he means not just the ideas but the way of life implied by those ideas. In other words, David delights in truth-in-action. This is why David devotes himself to meditating upon the words of God so that he can fix his eyes upon the ways of God. God’s words are not meant to give us fodder for meditation alone, rather, they're designed to shape in us a way of life that includes thinking, feeling, and action.

So let this be our delight: to understand the Word of God, to stoke the fires of our affections for God, and to walk in the ways of God by the grace and power of the Holy Spirit. May we not forget his Word! 

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Intercession as a Measure of our Maturity in Christ

In one of his several books on prayer, Andrew Murray writes, “The more we abide in [Christ] and grow in His likeness, the more His priestly life will work in us, and the more our life will become what His is: one that intercedes for others” (Teach Me to Pray, Minneapolis: Bethany House, 2002, page 6).

Indeed, to abide in Christ is to learn to pray like Christ, to pray with him for the glory of the Father and the good of others. So one mark of our maturity in Christ is our actual habit of interceding for others. How are you doing with this?

Whatever your answer, here’s the standard to which Jesus calls all who believe in him: “Consequently, he is able to save to the uttermost those who draw near to God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them” (Hebrews 7:25). 

Friday, January 23, 2015

A Stunning Prophecy of Jesus as King and Priest

In the book of Hebrews we learn the stunning and life-shaping truth that Jesus Christ is the King of kings and the eternal High Priest, that these two offices which were supposed to be held separate are forever united in Christ. Did you know that God used the prophet Jeremiah to prophecy of this unification centuries before the birth of Christ? Please read the following verses carefully:

“In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch to spring up for David [Jesus], and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. In those days Judah will be saved, and Jerusalem will dwell securely. And this is the name by which it will be called: ‘The LORD is our righteousness.’ For thus says the LORD: David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel [King], and the Levitical priests shall never lack a man in my presence to offer burnt offerings, to burn grain offerings, and to make sacrifices forever [Priest].”

Behold the glory of Christ!

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Daily Faith Breeds Steady Faith

Hudson Taylor, lauded missionary to China and man of great faith, once wrote, “The secret of faith that is ready for emergencies is the quiet, practical dependence upon God day by day which makes him real to the believing heart” (in Hudson Taylor’s Spiritual Secret, Littleton, CO: OMF Books, 2010, page 73).

Amen. We prepare for the storms of life whether or not there is a present storm, for our preparation is simply this: clinging to God by faith. If we will learn to cling to him day by day, then we will be able to cling to him on any day, no matter how dark or dreary or perilous. As the Psalmist wrote in Psalm 112:7, “He is not afraid of bad new; his heart is firm, trusting in the Lord.”

May the Lord teach us the life-shaping secret of living by faith.

Monday, January 19, 2015

Selma - The Movie and "Eyes on the Prize"

Kim and I plan to see Selma today, and when I'm able I'll offer a review of it. However good the movie turns out to be (or not), PBS's classic series "Eyes on the Prize" is surely better. The video below is long, a little less than an hour, but it's worth the time. In fact, all six episodes are worth the time. May the Lord help us to strike the proper balance between a genuine love for Him, a genuine love for truth, and a genuine love for those who are unjustly suffering in our society. As Martin Luther King Jr. wrote in his classic Pilgrimage to Non-Violence, "Any religion that professes to be concerned about the souls of men and is not concerned about the slums that damn them, the economic conditions that strangle them and the social conditions that cripple them is a spiritually moribund religion awaiting burial." 

Sunday, January 18, 2015

Alone Together - Colbert & Turkle, a Humorous Take on a Serious Subject

Over the last two weeks I've been reading Sherry Turkle's book, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less From Each Other. I don't agree with everything she says, but overall I find her argument compelling and important. Here's a humorous but helpful discussion about the book with Stephen Colbert.

(If for some reason the video doesn't play, you can access it here.) 

Friday, January 16, 2015

False Pleasures and True Pleasure

In Proverbs 23:19-21 King Solomon writes, “Hear, my son, and be wise, and direct your heart in the way. Be not among drunkards or among gluttonous eaters of meat, for the drunkard and the glutton will come to poverty, and slumber will clothe them with rags.”

The issue Solomon is addressing here is getting caught up in the foolishness of the crown. He’s a king writing to those who will have power in this world and warning them away from that which will destroy them and harm those under their care. Notice that “drunkards” and “gluttonous eaters of meat” are coupled in this text. Although the effects of the excess use of alcohol and food are different, at root the impulse to indulge in either one, or both, is much the same. The impulse is, “Feed me and my lusts at any cost.” This attitude corrupts the soul and thus destroys one’s ability to lead well.

This is why Solomon instructs the son, not only to avoid these things, but to avoid those who make a life of these things. We become the company we keep, and thus if we keep company with those who make a “god” of their pleasures, we will eventually give ourselves to that same way of life.

Please note that the primary issue here is not the pursuit of pleasure but the pursuit of false pleasure, or perhaps better put, over-indulgence in worldly pleasures. The issue here is false worship. God has created us to be satisfied in him alone, and when he takes first place in our hearts then we’re free to enjoy many things in this world in moderation and wisdom. But when we get the balance out of whack, we get in trouble.

Consider the words of Jeremiah 17:5-6. “Cursed is the man who trusts in man and makes flesh his strength, whose heart turns away from the LORD. He is like a shrub in the desert, and shall not see any good come. He shall dwell in the parched places of the wilderness, in an uninhabited salt land.”  This is the destiny of all who reject Solomon’s wisdom.

One way to guard our hearts against this tragic end is to contemplate the end of giving ourselves to certain things, and the end of those who indulge in them. Drunkards and gluttons come to poverty, not always material poverty, but great and tragic poverty nonetheless. Sometimes our riches blind us to our poverty and sometimes our poverty opens our eyes to true riches. As the Bible says elsewhere, bad company corrupts good character, and we would do well to carefully contemplate this fact.

As we do, we should then resolve to spend our time with the kind of people we want to be, namely, godly people who are slowly but surely becoming more like Christ. For me, I like to soak my mind in the Bible and in good books written by those who also love the God of the Bible. Further, I love spending time around local and global missionaries who take seriously the call of Jesus to take up the cross and follow him. Being around people who are intensely seeking Jesus inspires me to seek Jesus with intensity.

So, to bring this rambling blog to a close, life in Christ has much to do with the company we keep. What kind of company are you keeping? Are you becoming more like Jesus because of those around you, or not? What would God have you do about your current situation? Whatever the Lord reveals to you, I encourage you to join me in listening to him and surrendering to his will.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Submit, Resist, Draw Near

James 4:7-8 says, “Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you…”

In these verses James issues three commands—submit, resist, and draw near. It seems to me that the first command is the main command and that the other two help us understand how to do it.

In other words, the primary thing James is commending here is that we fully surrender our lives to God. So many of the problems we face in this life are owing to the fact that we refuse to submit to Christ. If we would only bow our will to his will, if we would only live by his Word rather than the wisdom of the world or of ourselves, most of our difficulties would evaporate. As Jesus said of himself in John 8:29, “And he who sent me is with me. He has not left me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to him.” This way of life keeps us from so many unnecessary troubles.

The question is, though, how do we submit to God? James says two things: first, resist the devil. Don’t listen to him. Don’t follow him. Don’t give into him. Don’t do the things that he does. In order to submit to God we must refuse to submit to others, primarily the devil himself.

Second, draw near to God. Put him first. Read his Word. Listen to what he has to say. Talk to him. Draw upon him. Receive his grace and walk in his ways.

If we will dare to obey these things—submit by resisting and drawing near—God promises us that the devil will flee from us and that he himself will draw near to us. These are stunning promises, and they’re true. May God grant us the grace this day to hear and receive his Word from James.

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Book Review: “Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture”

This week I’ve been reading a classic book from Lesslie Newbigin entitled, Foolishness to the Greeks: The Gospel and Western Culture (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1986). The book is a re-working of lectures delivered at Princeton Theological Seminary in March 1984. His central question is this: “What would be involved in a missionary encounter between the gospel and this whole way of perceiving, thinking, and living that we call ‘modern Western-culture’?” (1). He acknowledges that both H. Richard Niebuhr and Paul Tillich had already done significant work in this vein, but points out that both of them, and others, wrote from an academic perspective rather than a missionary perspective. Newbigin, on the other hand, was for forty years a missionary to India, and thus writes from that perspective.

Newbigin begins by defining culture, defining the gospel, and discussing how they relate to one another. Culture is “the sum total of ways of living developed by a group of human beings and handed on from generation to generation” (3). Central to culture is language, and from there visual and musical arts, technologies, law, social and political organization, and religion. The gospel, on the other hand, is “the series of events that have their center in the life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ,” which have transpired to alter the human situation and call into question every human culture (3-4).

Given these basic definitions, Newbigin rightly shows that there is no “pure gospel” in the sense of “gospel outside of culture,” for the very words “Jesus” and “Christ” and “gospel” are culturally located terms with a wealth of meaning derived from extensive cultural experience. To deny the enculturation of the gospel is “an abandonment of the gospel, for the gospel is about the word made flesh” (4). The gospel incarnates. “There can never be a culture-free gospel. Yet the gospel, which is from the beginning to the end embodied in culturally conditioned forms, calls into question all cultures, including the one in which it was originally embedded” (4).

Indeed, I would add that there is culture in God (Trinity) and thus in heaven (see Matthew 6:10). God created human culture to image him, and therefore the idea that culture is inherently evil and corrupting is a Platonic idea, not a Christian idea. Although Christians readily acknowledge that all culture outside of God has been corrupted by sin, they also assert that the gospel is the culture of God come to transform the cultures of human beings.

With this in mind, Newbigin lays out the six aims of the book: (1) “to look in general at the issues raised by the cross-cultural communication of the gospel” [4], (2) to examine the essential features of western culture, (3) to consider the nature of biblical authority in the midst of western culture, (4) to explore the nature of the interrelation between the gospel and the intellectual core of western culture, namely science, (5) to explore the nature of the interrelation between the gospel and politics, that is, public morality, and (6) to explore the means by which the church should go about engaging western culture with the gospel. He devotes one chapter to each of these aims.

Three major ideas permeate the book. First, the gospel must enculturate, and “The communication has to be in the language of the receptor culture.” If this were not so, the communication of the gospel would make no sense to the receptor culture (5). Incarnation is endemic to Christianity.

Second, the gospel must confront every culture into which it enculturates. “[I]f it is truly the communication of the gospel, it will call radically into question that way of understanding embodied in the language it uses” (6). Thus, to say that the gospel must enculturate is not to say that it must be compromised. Rather, it finds a home in every culture and it radically confronts every culture.

Third, the transformative power of the gospel must be the work of God. “[T]his radical conversion can never be the achievement of any human persuasion, however eloquent. It can only be the work of God…It is something mysterious for which we can only say that our methods of communication were, at most, among the occasions for the miracle” (6). Therefore, while it is good to understand the nature of the relationship between the gospel and culture, our approach to engaging the latter with the former must be rooted in prayerful dependence upon God who alone can open eyes and ears and hearts to the truth of the glory of God in Christ.

Foolishness to the Greeks, a phrase borrowed from 1 Corinthians 1:23, is not an easy read, but it is a worthwhile read. Newbigin is especially gifted at diagnosing the core issues in a given culture. Where he falls short, at least in this book, is with prescriptive suggestions for how to engage the culture. His final chapter does suggest seven elements that would have to make up any genuine engagement between the gospel and western culture, but it stops short of demonstrating how these seven things would practically work together to make a difference.

But I for one can forgive Newbigin this shortcoming, for his insight is so penetrating that it is worth the effort necessary to read the book. And anyway, it’s probably best to approach the question of application in the context of local Christian community.

Saturday, January 10, 2015

Jens Voigt - His Final Stage

At the ripe old age of 42 years and 11 months, the most beloved of cyclists, Jens Voigt, rides in his final stage as a pro cyclist...and he goes out with a bang! We'll miss you, Jensie.

Friday, January 09, 2015

Exercise and Worship

After months of difficulties and laziness, I’ve finally been going to the gym on a regular basis again. And it feels so good! I especially love the elliptical machine, but then again I enjoy lifting weights and walking and preparing again for a 5k or 10k this year. 

Some people make an idol of exercise and health, and I surely don’t want to go that far. But I do want to give glory to Christ by caring for this body that he’s given to me. In any case, we should want to steward well what God has entrusted into our care, but since my father died when he was only 51 (three years older than I am now), and since both his parents died of heart attacks, and since my mother had a heart attack in her 30s, and since two of my siblings have had serious heart surgery—well then, I probably should be serious about caring for my body, and particularly my heart. 

In addition to the issue of stewardship, there is the issue of joy. The better shape I’m in, the more I can enjoy my bike in the spring, and when it comes to exercise I have no joy like being on my bike. So I’m exercising with all my might to the glory of Christ, and I’m storing up joy for the spring and summer when I’ll hopefully be able to ride that much faster and farther. 

As I said, exercise is for some false worship, but it doesn’t have to be. “So whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do it all to the glory of Christ” (1 Corinthians 10:31). Amen, may we learn to exercise to the glory of Christ. 

Wednesday, January 07, 2015

Alone Together - A TED Talk by Sherry Turkle

Here's a very insightful 20-minute talk by Sherry Turkle, author of the 2011 book, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less From Each Other.

Plugged in but Dumbing Down

In his book The Cultural Intelligence Difference, David Livermore writes, “The ‘always connected’ capability afforded us through our smart phones is wearing us out and may actually be making us dumber. One University of London study found that individuals who are constantly connected via e-mail, texting, and social networking sites experienced a ten-point drop in their IQ. In fact, researchers found that constantly being ‘on’ via technology has a similar effect to regularly giving up one night of sleep” (60).

I have often wondered about the effects of various media on mental processing, but I must admit that I was surprised to find that it’s this extreme. Of course, Livermore is addressing the overuse of media and not its use, but I think we’re safe to assume that any level of regular use has some effect on our minds. And given what he noted at the end of the quote, I assume that the main problem is that our minds are over-stimulated. They’re running at such a high level of RPMs for so long that they simply wear out. They cannot rest and thus they behave like minds that have not rested. Go figure.

We were designed to intake, process, and apply information, and each phase of this process takes time. In our information saturated, high-speed, non-stop world, our minds—even the brightest of minds—simply cannot keep up. We were designed to process a certain amount of information, to be sure, but not to be information processing machines. We are primarily relational beings for whom information plays a part, but more and more media requires that information play a central part. Too central a part.

So what are we to do? Media is part and parcel of our lives, and there’s no going back. Forsaking media is not an option for those who want to engage with, rather than withdraw from, the world. So again, what are we to do? I suggest a regular media fast, no less than once per month, that has as its aim reflection and recalibration. Here are a few steps toward a successful media fast.

(1) Decide how long your fast will be, and precisely when you will do it. Will you abstain for 1, 3, or 7 days? What will be your start and stop dates? What will you do about e-mail and other crucial media sources during your fast? Gaining clarity on these questions before the fact will greatly enhance the effect of your fast.

(2) Decide what you will do with your time during the fast. I suggest Bible reading, journaling, and meditation. Connect with the Lord and process with him your use of e-mail, texting, social media, web-surfing, and TV and movie watching. Articulate any adjustments you need to make.

(3) Give some thought to your patterns of intake, processing, and rest. Although sleep scientists still don’t understand precisely why we need sleep (and other forms of rest), it’s clear that we do. We can help our minds get the rest they need by managing the input they must process. So think not only about the amount of media you consume, but the times of day in which you do so and how that relates to rest or lack thereof.

It seems to me that if we would integrate this habit of fasting and reflection into our lives, our IQs would increase, and more importantly, our fruitfulness in life and joy in the Lord would increase. Why? Our identity and importance has little or nothing to do with being connected to the media outlets of our day, rather, it has to do with being found in Christ. Our union with Christ is the heart of our identity, and when we set aside secondary things for a time in order to focus on Christ, this truth rings true.

Sunday, January 04, 2015

Insights and Applications from Daniel 2:20-21

Last week I posted a blog on the 2015 Fighter Verse program in which I quoted Daniel 2:20-21, the first memory verses of the year. Daniel writes, “Blessed be the name of God forever and ever, to whom belong wisdom and might. He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding…”

I also asked you the questions, How many insights can you draw out of these verses? How do your insights apply to life with God and others?, and I told you that this week I would share my own insights and applications. So without further ado, here is what I see in Daniel 2:20-21.

(1) These words came as an explosion of praise, just after God had done the impossible for Daniel, specifically, God revealed to him a dream of King Nebuchadnezzar along with its meaning. They had prayed and begged God for this result, but when the answer came so did a flood of joy and of praise which Daniel begins to express in the words before us. The application/lesson: praise for God has its source in God. It doesn’t come out of nowhere, it arises from specific content or circumstances. Praise is a fruit, not the root.

(2) Daniel’s expression of praise begins with the hope that God’s most sacred name would forever blessed in heaven and on earth. The application/lesson: the focus of true praise is always about the exaltation of God’s great name. The cry of the true worshiper’s heart is that God would be known and loved as he is. Self-centered or self-exalting praise is no praise at all.

(3) Daniel confesses that God holds absolute sway over wisdom and strength. None of the other holy or wise men of Babylon could tell the King his dream or its meaning, and frankly, neither could Daniel. He was consciously aware of this fact, and so he sought God and asked for wisdom and insight. God granted his request and Daniel quickly and humbly acknowledged that the insight he had gained were owing the infinite resources in God, not in himself. The application/lesson: we must learn to give credit where credit is due. We must learn to see God as the Source of all our wisdom and strength, and explicitly acknowledge the same in our attitudes, words, and actions.

(4) Expanding on this affirmation, Daniel then acknowledges that God holds absolute sway over times and seasons; over kings and kingdoms; over wisdom and knowledge. He is absolutely sovereign over absolutely everything, and the granting of this dream and its meaning was evidence of the fact. The application/lesson: learn to see and savor the sovereignty of God and give him the glory that is due his name. As we gain new sight of the heights of God’s sovereignty, we will enter into new depths of worship and praise.

On another note, this is why I love Bible memorization. It’s not just about putting words in our minds, it’s about gaining rich insight that gives rise to worship and wisdom in life. So join me this year in memorizing the Word of God. Join me is savoring his wisdom and applying it to life. May God greatly increase our joy, as we grow in love for his will, wisdom, and ways.  

Friday, January 02, 2015

My Bible Reading Plan this Year

Most years I read straight through the Bible. I think I've read it from cover to cover about 20 times. However, for this year I created a reading plan wherein I will (1) read a Psalm each day, (2) read a section of Proverbs each day, (3) and read a section of John's writings each day--John, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John, and Revelation. This plan will allow me to read through Psalms and Proverbs twice this year and to carefully meditate on John's writings this year. It contains 25 days of reading per month, allowing for those day when it's hard-to-impossible to give substantial time to reading, and allowing time for reflection on the readings or on something else God is teaching me. 

Below you'll see the plan for the month of January. If you're interested in seeing the entire plan, just say so in the comments section (include your e-mail) or e-mail me at and I'll be glad to send it to you. 

I am thrilled to soak my soul in the Psalms, Proverbs, and the writings of John this year! What is your plan for soaking your soul in the gracious Word of God? 

1.        □ Psalm 1
2.        □ Psalm 2
3.        □ Psalm 3
4.        □ Psalm 4
5.        □ Psalm 5
6.        □ Psalm 6
7.        □ Psalm 7
8.        □ Psalm 8
9.        □ Psalm 9
10.     □ Psalm 10
11.     □ Psalm 11
12.     □ Psalm 12
13.     □ Psalm 13
14.     □ Psalm 14
15.     □ Psalm 15
16.     □ Psalm 16
17.     □ Psalm 17
18.     □ Psalm 18
19.     □ Psalm 19
20.     □ Psalm 20
21.     □ Psalm 21
22.     □ Psalm 22
23.     □ Psalm 23
24.     □ Psalm 24
25.     □ Psalm 25
1.        □ Proverbs 1:1-7
2.        □ Proverbs 1:8-19
3.        □ Proverbs 1:20-33
4.        □ Proverbs 2:1-15
5.        □ Proverbs 2:16-19
6.        □ Proverbs 2:20-22
7.        □ Proverbs 3:1-4
8.        □ Proverbs 3:5-8
9.        □ Proverbs 3:9-12
10.     □ Proverbs 3:13-18
11.     □ Proverbs 3:19-20
12.     □ Proverbs 3:21-27
13.     □ Proverbs 3:28-35
14.     □ Proverbs 4:1-9
15.     □ Proverbs 4:10-19
16.     □ Proverbs 4:20-27
17.     □ Proverbs 5:1-6
18.     □ Proverbs 5:7-14
19.     □ Proverbs 5:15-23
20.     □ Proverbs 6:1-5
21.     □ Proverbs 6:6-11
22.     □ Proverbs 6:12-19
23.     □ Proverbs 6:20-35
24.     □ Proverbs 7:1-5
25.     □ Proverbs 7:6-9
1.        □ John 1
2.        □ John 1
3.        □ John 1
4.        □ John 1
5.        □ John 1
6.        □ John 1
7.        □ John 2
8.        □ John 2
9.        □ John 2
10.     □ John 2
11.     □ John 2
12.     □ John 2
13.     □ John 3
14.     □ John 3
15.     □ John 3
16.     □ John 3
17.     □ John 3
18.     □ John 3
19.     □ John 4
20.     □ John 4
21.     □ John 4
22.     □ John 4
23.     □ John 4
24.     □ John 4
25.     □ John 5